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Systemd 254 released, deprecating sysvinit scripts

Systemd 254 has been released. As usual, there is a long list of changes,
including a new


command for


, the
ability to send POSIX signals to services, a “soft reboot” feature that
restarts user space while leaving the kernel in place, improved support for
virtual machines
“, and a lot more.

The announcement also notes the support for split-/usr systems
will be removed in the next release, and support for version-one control
groups and for System V service scripts will be deleted in the near
future as well.

From:   systemd tag bot
Subject:   systemd 254 released
Date:   Fri, 28 Jul 2023 08:28:50 +0000
Message-ID:   <>
Archive-link:   Article
🎆 A new, official systemd release has just 🎉 been 🎊 tagged 🍾. Please download the tarball here:

Changes since the previous release:

        Announcements of Future Feature Removals and Incompatible Changes:

        * The next release (v255) will remove support for split-usr (/usr/
          mounted separately during late boot, instead of being mounted by the
          initrd before switching to the rootfs) and unmerged-usr (parallel
          directories /bin/ and /usr/bin/, /lib/ and /usr/lib/, …). For more
          details, see:

        * We intend to remove cgroup v1 support from a systemd release after
          the end of 2023. If you run services that make explicit use of
          cgroup v1 features (i.e. the "legacy hierarchy" with separate
          hierarchies for each controller), please implement compatibility with
          cgroup v2 (i.e. the "unified hierarchy") sooner rather than later.
          Most of Linux userspace has been ported over already.

        * Support for System V service scripts is now deprecated and will be
          removed in a future release. Please make sure to update your software
          *now* to include a native systemd unit file instead of a legacy
          System V script to retain compatibility with future systemd releases.

        * Support for the SystemdOptions EFI variable is deprecated.
          'bootctl systemd-efi-options' will emit a warning when used. It seems
          that this feature is little-used and it is better to use alternative
          approaches like credentials and confexts. The plan is to drop support
          altogether at a later point, but this might be revisited based on
          user feedback.

        * EnvironmentFile= now treats the line following a comment line
          trailing with escape as a non comment line. For details, see:

        * Behaviour of sandboxing options for the per-user service manager
          units has changed. They now imply PrivateUsers=yes, which means user
          namespaces will be implicitly enabled when a sandboxing option is
          enabled in a user unit. Enabling user namespaces has the drawback
          that system users will no longer be visible (and processes/files will
          appear as owned by 'nobody') in the user unit.

          By definition a sandboxed user unit should run with reduced
          privileges, so impact should be small. This will remove a great
          source of confusion that has been reported by users over the years,
          due to how these options require an extra setting to be manually
          enabled when used in the per-user service manager, which is not
          needed in the system service manager. For more details, see:

        * systemd-run's switch --expand-environment= which currently is disabled
          by default when combined with --scope, will be changed in a future
          release to be enabled by default.

        Security Relevant Changes:

        * pam_systemd will now by default pass the CAP_WAKE_ALARM ambient
          process capability to invoked session processes of regular users on
          local seats (as well as to systemd --user), unless configured
          otherwise via data from JSON user records, or via the PAM module's
          parameter list. This is useful in order allow desktop tools such as
          GNOME's Alarm Clock application to set a timer for
          CLOCK_REALTIME_ALARM that wakes up the system when it elapses. A
          per-user service unit file may thus use AmbientCapability= to pass
          the capability to invoked processes. Note that this capability is
          relatively narrow in focus (in particular compared to other process
          capabilities such as CAP_SYS_ADMIN) and we already — by default —
          permit more impactful operations such as system suspend to local

        Service Manager:

        * "Startup" memory settings are now supported. Previously IO and CPU
          settings were already supported via StartupCPUWeight= and similar.
          The same logic has been added for the various per-unit memory
          settings StartupMemoryMax= and related.

        * The service manager gained support for enqueuing POSIX signals to
          services that carry an additional integer value, exposing the
          sigqueue() system call. This is accessible via new D-Bus calls
          org.freedesktop.systemd1.Manager.QueueSignalUnit() and
          org.freedesktop.systemd1.Unit.QueueSignal(), as well as in systemctl
          via the new --kill-value= option.

        * systemctl gained a new "list-paths" verb, which shows all currently
          active .path units, similarly to how "systemctl list-timers" shows
          active timers, and "systemctl list-sockets" shows active sockets.

        * systemctl gained a new --when= switch which is honoured by the various
          forms of shutdown (i.e. reboot, kexec, poweroff, halt) and allows
          scheduling these operations by time, similar in fashion to how this
          has been supported by SysV shutdown.

        * If MemoryDenyWriteExecute= is enabled for a service and the kernel
          supports the new PR_SET_MDWE prctl() call, it is used instead of the
          seccomp()-based system call filter to achieve the same effect.

        * A new set of kernel command line options is now understood:
          systemd.tty.term.=, systemd.tty.rows.=,
          systemd.tty.columns.= allow configuring the TTY type and
          dimensions for the tty specified via . When systemd invokes a
          service on a tty (via TTYName=) it will look for these and configure
          the TTY accordingly. This is particularly useful in VM environments
          to propagate host terminal settings into the appropriate TTYs of the

        * A new RootEphemeral= setting is now understood in service units. It
          takes a boolean argument. If enabled for services that use RootImage=
          or RootDirectory= an ephemeral copy of the disk image or directory
          tree is made when the service is started. It is removed automatically
          when the service is stopped. That ephemeral copy is made using
          btrfs/xfs reflinks or btrfs snapshots, if available.

        * The service activation logic gained new settings RestartSteps= and
          RestartMaxDelaySec= which allow exponentially-growing restart
          intervals for Restart=.

        * The service activation logic gained a new setting RestartMode= which
          can be set to 'direct' to skip the inactive/failed states when
          restarting, so that dependent units are not notified until the service
          converges to a final (successful or failed) state. For example, this
          means that OnSuccess=/OnFailure= units will not be triggered until the
          service state has converged.

        * PID 1 will now automatically load the virtio_console kernel module
          during early initialization if running in a suitable VM. This is done
          so that early-boot logging can be written to the console if available.

        * Similarly, virtio-vsock support is loaded early in suitable VM
          environments. PID 1 will send sd_notify() notifications via AF_VSOCK
          to the VMM if configured, thus loading this early is beneficial.

        * A new verb "fdstore" has been added to systemd-analyze to show the
          current contents of the file descriptor store of a unit. This is
          backed by a new D-Bus call DumpUnitFileDescriptorStore() provided by
          the service manager.

        * The service manager will now set a new $FDSTORE environment variable
          when invoking processes for services that have the file descriptor
          store enabled.

        * A new service option FileDescriptorStorePreserve= has been added that
          allows tuning the life-cycle of the per-service file descriptor
          store. If set to "yes", the entries in the fd store are retained even
          after the service has been fully stopped.

        * The "systemctl clean" command may now be used to clear the fdstore of
          a service.

        * Unit *.preset files gained a new directive "ignore", in addition to
          the existing "enable" and "disable". As the name suggests, matching
          units are left unchanged, i.e. neither enabled nor disabled.

        * Service units gained a new setting DelegateSubgroup=. It takes the
          name of a sub-cgroup to place any processes the service manager forks
          off in. Previously, the service manager would place all service
          processes directly in the top-level cgroup it created for the
          service. This usually meant that main process in a service with
          delegation enabled would first have to create a subgroup and move
          itself down into it, in order to not conflict with the "no processes
          in inner cgroups" rule of cgroup v2. With this option, this step is
          now handled by PID 1.

        * The service manager will now look for .upholds/ directories,
          similarly to the existing support for .wants/ and .requires/
          directories. Symlinks in this directory result in Upholds=

          The [Install] section of unit files gained support for a new
          UpheldBy= directive to generate .upholds/ symlinks automatically when
          a unit is enabled.

        * The service manager now supports a new kernel command line option
          systemd.default_device_timeout_sec=, which may be used to override
          the default timeout for .device units.

        * A new "soft-reboot" mechanism has been added to the service manager.
          A "soft reboot" is similar to a regular reboot, except that it
          affects userspace only: the service manager shuts down any running
          services and other units, then optionally switches into a new root
          file system (mounted to /run/nextroot/), and then passes control to a
          systemd instance in the new file system which then starts the system
          up again. The kernel is not rebooted and neither is the hardware,
          firmware or boot loader. This provides a fast, lightweight mechanism
          to quickly reset or update userspace, without the latency that a full
          system reset involves. Moreover, open file descriptors may be passed
          across the soft reboot into the new system where they will be passed
          back to the originating services. This allows pinning resources
          across the reboot, thus minimizing grey-out time further. This new
          reboot mechanism is accessible via the new "systemctl soft-reboot"

        * Services using RootDirectory= or RootImage= will now have read-only
          access to a copy of the host's os-release file under
          /run/host/os-release, which will be kept up-to-date on 'soft-reboot'.
          This was already the case for Portable Services, and the feature has
          now been extended to all services that do not run off the host's
          root filesystem.

        * A new service setting MemoryKSM= has been added to enable kernel
          same-page merging individually for services.

        * A new service setting ImportCredentials= has been added that augments
          LoadCredential= and LoadCredentialEncrypted= and searches for
          credentials to import from the system, and supports globbing.

        * A new job mode "restart-dependencies" has been added to the service
          manager (exposed via systemctl --job-mode=). It is only valid when
          used with "start" jobs, and has the effect that the "start" job will
          be propagated as "restart" jobs to currently running units that have
          a BindsTo= or Requires= dependency on the started unit.

        * A new verb "whoami" has been added to "systemctl" which determines as
          part of which unit the command is being invoked. It writes the unit
          name to standard output. If one or more PIDs are specified reports
          the unit names the processes referenced by the PIDs belong to.

        * The system and service credential logic has been improved: there's
          now a clearly defined place where system provisioning tools running
          in the initrd can place credentials that will be imported into the
          system's set of credentials during the initrd → host transition: the
          /run/credentials/@initrd/ directory. Once the credentials placed
          there are imported into the system credential set they are deleted
          from this directory, and the directory itself is deleted afterwards

        * A new kernel command line option systemd.set_credential_binary= has
          been added, that is similar to the pre-existing
          systemd.set_credential= but accepts arbitrary binary credential data,
          encoded in Base64. Note that the kernel command line is not a
          recommend way to transfer credentials into a system, since it is
          world-readable from userspace.

        * The default machine ID to use may now be configured via the
          system.machine_id system credential. It will only be used if no
          machine ID was set yet on the host.

        * On Linux kernel 6.4 and newer system and service credentials will now
          be placed in a tmpfs instance that has the "noswap" mount option
          set. Previously, a "ramfs" instance was used. By switching to tmpfs
          ACL support and overall size limits can now be enforced, without
          compromising on security, as the memory is never paged out either

        * The service manager now can detect when it is running in a
          'Confidential Virtual Machine', and a corresponding 'cvm' value is now
          accepted by ConditionSecurity= for units that want to conditionalize
          themselves on this. systemd-detect-virt gained new 'cvm' and
          '--list-cvm' switches to respectively perform the detection or list
          all known flavours of confidential VM, depending on the vendor. The
          manager will publish a 'ConfidentialVirtualization' D-Bus property,
          and will also set a SYSTEMD_CONFIDENTIAL_VIRTUALIZATION= environment
          variable for unit generators. Finally, udev rules can match on a new
          'cvm' key that will be set when in a confidential VM.
          Additionally, when running in a 'Confidential Virtual Machine', SMBIOS
          strings and QEMU's fw_cfg protocol will not be used to import
          credentials and kernel command line parameters by the system manager,
          systemd-boot and systemd-stub, because the hypervisor is considered
          untrusted in this particular setting.


        * The sd-journal API gained a new call sd_journal_get_seqnum() to
          retrieve the current log record's sequence number and sequence number
          ID, which allows applications to order records the same way as
          journal does internally. The sequence number is now also exported in
          the JSON and "export" output of the journal.

        * journalctl gained a new switch --truncate-newline. If specified
          multi-line log records will be truncated at the first newline,
          i.e. only the first line of each log message will be shown.

        * systemd-journal-upload gained support for --namespace=, similar to
          the switch of the same name of journalctl.


        * systemd-repart's drop-in files gained a new ExcludeFiles= option which
          may be used to exclude certain files from the effect of CopyFiles=.

        * systemd-repart's Verity support now implements the Minimize= setting
          to minimize the size of the resulting partition.

        * systemd-repart gained a new --offline= switch, which may be used to
          control whether images shall be built "online" or "offline",
          i.e. whether to make use of kernel facilities such as loopback block
          devices and device mapper or not.

        * If systemd-repart is told to populate a newly created ESP or XBOOTLDR
          partition with some files, it will now default to VFAT rather than

        * systemd-repart gained a new --architecture= switch. If specified, the
          per-architecture GPT partition types (i.e. the root and /usr/
          partitions) configured in the partition drop-in files are
          automatically adjusted to match the specified CPU architecture, in
          order to simplify cross-architecture DDI building.

        * systemd-repart will now default to a minimum size of 300MB for XFS
          filesystems if no size parameter is specified. This matches what the
          XFS tools (xfsprogs) can support.

        systemd-boot, systemd-stub, ukify, bootctl, kernel-install:

        * gnu-efi is no longer required to build systemd-boot and systemd-stub.
          Instead, pyelftools is now needed, and it will be used to perform the
          ELF -> PE relocations at build time.

        * bootctl gained a new switch --print-root-device/-R that prints the
          block device the root file system is backed by. If specified twice,
          it returns the whole disk block device (as opposed to partition block
          device) the root file system is on. It's useful for invocations such
          as "cfdisk $(bootctl -RR)" to quickly show the partition table of the
          running OS.

        * systemd-stub will now look for the SMBIOS Type 1 field
          "io.systemd.stub.kernel-cmdline-extra" and append its value to the
          kernel command line it invokes. This is useful for VMMs such as qemu
          to pass additional kernel command lines into the system even when
          booting via full UEFI. The contents of the field are measured into
          TPM PCR 12.

        * The KERNEL_INSTALL_LAYOUT= setting for kernel-install gained a new
          value "auto". With this value, a kernel will be automatically
          analyzed, and if it qualifies as UKI, it will be installed as if the
          setting was to set to "uki", otherwise as "bls".

        * systemd-stub can now optionally load UEFI PE "add-on" images that may
          contain additional kernel command line information. These "add-ons"
          superficially look like a regular UEFI executable, and are expected
          to be signed via SecureBoot/shim. However, they do not actually
          contain code, but instead a subset of the PE sections that UKIs
          support. They are supposed to provide a way to extend UKIs with
          additional resources in a secure and authenticated way. Currently,
          only the .cmdline PE section may be used in add-ons, in which case
          any specified string is appended to the command line embedded into
          the UKI itself. A new 'addon.efi.stub' is now provided that
          can be used to trivially create addons, via 'ukify' or 'objcopy'. In
          the future we expect other sections to be made extensible like this as

        * ukify has been updated to allow building these UEFI PE "add-on"
          images, using the new 'addon.efi.stub'.

        * ukify gained a new "genkey" verb for generating a set of of key pairs
          to sign UKIs and their PCR data with.

        * ukify now accepts SBAT information to place in the .sbat PE section
          of UKIs and addons. If a UKI is built the SBAT information from the
          inner kernel is merged with any SBAT information associated with
          systemd-stub and the SBAT data specified on the ukify command line.

        * The kernel-install script has been rewritten in C, and reuses much of
          the infrastructure of existing tools such as bootctl. It also gained
          --esp-path= and --boot-path= options to override the path to the ESP,
          and the $BOOT partition. Options --make-entry-directory= and
          --entry-token= have been added as well, similar to bootctl's options
          of the same name.

        * A new kernel-install plugin 60-ukify has been added which will
          combine kernel/initrd locally into a UKI and optionally sign them
          with a local key. This may be used to switch to UKI mode even on
          systems where a local kernel or initrd is used. (Typically UKIs are
          built and signed by the vendor.)

        * The ukify tool now supports "pesign" in addition to the pre-existing
          "sbsign" for signing UKIs.

        * systemd-measure and systemd-stub now look for the .uname PE section
          that should contain the kernel's "uname -r" string.

        * systemd-measure and ukify now calculate expected PCR hashes for a UKI
          "offline", i.e. without access to a TPM (physical or

        Memory Pressure & Control:

        * The sd-event API gained new calls sd_event_add_memory_pressure(),
          sd_event_source_set_memory_pressure_period() to create and configure
          an event source that is called whenever the OS signals memory
          pressure. Another call sd_event_trim_memory() is provided that
          compacts the process' memory use by releasing allocated but unused
          malloc() memory back to the kernel. Services can also provide their
          own custom callback to do memory trimming. This should improve system
          behaviour under memory pressure, as on Linux traditionally provided
          no mechanism to return process memory back to the kernel if the
          kernel was under memory pressure. This makes use of the kernel's PSI
          interface. Most long-running services in systemd have been hooked up
          with this, and in particular systems with low memory should benefit
          from this.

        * Service units gained new settings MemoryPressureWatch= and
          MemoryPressureThresholdSec= to configure the PSI memory pressure
          logic individually. If these options are used, the
          variables will be set for the invoked processes to inform them about
          the requested memory pressure behaviour. (This is used by the
          aforementioned sd-events API additions, if set.)

        * systemd-analyze gained a new "malloc" verb that shows the output
          generated by glibc's malloc_info() on services that support it. Right
          now, only the service manager has been updated accordingly. This
          call requires privileges.

        User & Session Management:

        * The sd-login API gained a new call sd_session_get_username() to
          return the user name of the owner of a login session. It also gained
          a new call sd_session_get_start_time() to retrieve the time the login
          session started. A new call sd_session_get_leader() has been added to
          return the PID of the "leader" process of a session. A new call
          sd_uid_get_login_time() returns the time since the specified user has
          most recently been continuously logged in with at least one session.

        * JSON user records gained a new set of fields capabilityAmbientSet and
          capabilityBoundingSet which contain a list of POSIX capabilities to
          set for the logged in users in the ambient and bounding sets,
          respectively. homectl gained the ability to configure these two sets
          for users via --capability-bounding-set=/--capability-ambient-set=.

        * pam_systemd learnt two new module options
          default-capability-bounding-set= and default-capability-ambient-set=,
          which configure the default bounding sets for users as they are
          logging in, if the JSON user record doesn't specify this explicitly
          (see above). The built-in default for the ambient set now contains
          the CAP_WAKE_ALARM, thus allowing regular users who may log in
          locally to resume from a system suspend via a timer.

        * The Session D-Bus objects systemd-logind gained a new SetTTY() method
          call to update the TTY of a session after it has been allocated. This
          is useful for SSH sessions which are typically allocated first, and
          for which a TTY is added later.

        * The sd-login API gained a new call sd_pid_notifyf_with_fds() which
          combines the various other sd_pid_notify() flavours into one: takes a
          format string, an overriding PID, and a set of file descriptors to
          send. It also gained a new call sd_pid_notify_barrier() call which is
          equivalent to sd_notify_barrier() but allows the originating PID to
          be specified.

        * "loginctl list-users" and "loginctl list-sessions" will now show the
          state of each logged in user/session in their tabular output. It will
          also show the current idle state of sessions.


        * systemd-dissect will now show the intended CPU architecture of an
          inspected DDI.

        * systemd-dissect will now install itself as mount helper for the "ddi"
          pseudo-file system type. This means you may now mount DDIs directly
          via /bin/mount or /etc/fstab, making full use of embedded Verity
          information and all other DDI features.

          Example: mount -t ddi myimage.raw /some/where

        * The systemd-dissect tool gained the new switches --attach/--detach to
          attach/detach a DDI to a loopback block device without mounting it.
          It will automatically derive the right sector size from the image
          and set up Verity and similar, but not mount the file systems in it.

        * When systemd-gpt-auto-generator or the DDI mounting logic mount an
          ESP or XBOOTLDR partition the MS_NOSYMFOLLOW mount option is now
          implied. Given that these file systems are typically untrusted, this
          should make mounting them automatically have less of a security

        * All tools that parse DDIs (such as systemd-nspawn, systemd-dissect,
          systemd-tmpfiles, …) now understand a new switch --image-policy= which
          takes a string encoding image dissection policy. With this mechanism
          automatic discovery and use of specific partition types and the
          cryptographic requirements on the partitions (Verity, LUKS, …) can be
          restricted, permitting better control of the exposed attack surfaces
          when mounting disk images. systemd-gpt-auto-generator will honour such
          an image policy too, configurable via the systemd.image_policy= kernel
          command line option. Unit files gained the RootImagePolicy=,
          MountImagePolicy= and ExtensionImagePolicy= to configure the same for
          disk images a service runs off.

        * systemd-analyze gained a new verb "image-policy" to validate and
          parse image policy strings.

        * systemd-dissect gained support for a new --validate switch to
          superficially validate DDI structure, and check whether a specific
          image policy allows the DDI.

        * systemd-dissect gained support for a new --mtree-hash switch to
          optionally disable calculating mtree hashes, which can be slow on
          large images.

        * systemd-dissect --copy-to, --copy-from, --list and --mtree switches
          are now able to operate on directories too, other than images.

        Network Management:

        * networkd's GENEVE support as gained a new .network option

        * The [Tunnel] section in .netdev files has gained a new setting
          IgnoreDontFragment for controlling the IPv4 "DF" flag of datagrams.

        * A new global IPv6PrivacyExtensions= setting has been added that
          selects the default value of the per-network setting of the same

        * The predictable network interface naming logic will now include
          SR-IOV-R "representor" information in network interface names.

        * The DHCPv4 + DHCPv6 + IPv6 RA logic in networkd gained support for
          the RFC8910 captive portal option.

        Device Management:

        * udevadm gained the new "verify" verb for validating udev rules files

        * udev gained a new tool "iocost" that can be used to configure QoS IO
          cost data based on hwdb information onto suitable block devices. Also

        TPM2 Support + Disk Encryption & Authentication:

        * systemd-cryptenroll/systemd-cryptsetup will now install a TPM2 SRK
          ("Storage Root Key") as first step in the TPM2, and then use that
          for binding FDE to, if TPM2 support is used. This matches
          recommendations of TCG (see

        * systemd-cryptenroll and other tools that take TPM2 PCR parameters now
          understand textual identifiers for these PCRs.

        * systemd-veritysetup + /etc/veritytab gained support for a series of
          new options: hash-offset=, superblock=, format=, data-block-size=,
          hash-block-size=, data-blocks=, salt=, uuid=, hash=, fec-device=,
          fec-offset=, fec-roots= to configure various aspects of a Verity

        * systemd-cryptsetup + /etc/crypttab gained support for a new
          veracrypt-pim= option for setting the Personal Iteration Multiplier
          of veracrypt volumes.

        * systemd-integritysetup + /etc/integritytab gained support for a new
          mode= setting for controlling the dm-integrity mode (journal, bitmap,
          direct) for the volume.

        * systemd-analyze gained a new verb "pcrs" that shows the known TPM PCR
          registers, their symbolic names and current values.


        * The ACL support in tmpfiles.d/ has been updated: if an uppercase "X"
          access right is specified this is equivalent to "x" but only if the
          inode in question already has the executable bit set for at least
          some user/group. Otherwise the "x" bit will be turned off.

        * tmpfiles.d/'s C line type now understands a new modifier "+": a line
          with C+ will result in a "merge" copy, i.e. all files of the source
          tree are copied into the target tree, even if that tree already
          exists, resulting in a combined tree of files already present in the
          target tree and those copied in.

        * systemd-tmpfiles gained a new --graceful switch. If specified lines
          with unknown users/groups will silently be skipped.


        * systemd-notify gained two new options --fd= and --fdname= for sending
          arbitrary file descriptors to the service manager (while specifying an
          explicit name for it).

        * systemd-notify gained a new --exec switch, which makes it execute the
          specified command line after sending the requested messages. This is
          useful for sending out READY=1 first, and then continuing invocation
          without changing process ID, so that the tool can be nicely used
          within an ExecStart= line of a unit file that uses Type=ready.

        sd-event + sd-bus APIs:

        * The sd-event API gained a new call sd_event_source_leave_ratelimit()
          which may be used to explicitly end a rate-limit state an event
          source might be in, resetting all rate limiting counters.

        * When the sd-bus library is used to make connections to AF_UNIX D-Bus
          sockets, it will now encode the "description" set via
          sd_bus_set_description() into the source socket address. It will also
          look for this information when accepting a connection. This is useful
          to track individual D-Bus connections on a D-Bus broker for debug


        * systemd-resolved gained a new resolved.conf setting
          StateRetentionSec= which may be used to retain cached DNS records
          even after their nominal TTL, and use them in case upstream DNS
          servers cannot be reached. This can be sued to make name resolution
          more resilient in case of network problems.

        * resolvectl gained a new verb "show-cache" to show the current cache
          contents of systemd-resolved. This verb communicates with the
          systemd-resolved daemon and requires privileges.


        * Meson >= 0.60.0 is now required to build systemd.

        * The default keymap to apply may now be chosen at build-time via the
          new -Ddefault-keymap= meson option.

        * Most of systemd's long-running services now have a generic handler of
          the SIGRTMIN+18 signal handler which executes various operations
          depending on the sigqueue() parameter sent along. For example, values
          0x100…0x107 allow changing the maximum log level of such
          services. 0x200…0x203 allow changing the log target of such
          services. 0x300 make the services trim their memory similarly to the
          automatic PSI-triggered action, see above. 0x301 make the services
          output their malloc_info() data to the logs.

        * machinectl gained new "edit" and "cat" verbs for editing .nspawn
          files, inspired by systemctl's verbs of the same name which edit unit
          files. Similarly, networkctl gained the same verbs for editing
          .network, .netdev, .link files.

        * A new syscall filter group "@sandbox" has been added that contains
          syscalls for sandboxing system calls such as those for seccomp and

        * New documentation has been added:


        * systemd-firstboot gained a new --reset option. If specified, the
          settings in /etc/ it knows how to initialize are reset.

        * systemd-sysext is now a multi-call binary and is also installed under
          the systemd-confext alias name (via a symlink). When invoked that way
          it will operate on /etc/ instead of /usr/ + /opt/. It thus becomes a
          powerful, atomic, secure configuration management of sorts, that
          locally can merge configuration from multiple confext configuration
          images into a single immutable tree.

        * The --network-macvlan=, --network-ipvlan=, --network-interface=
          switches of systemd-nspawn may now optionally take the intended
          network interface inside the container.

        * All our programs will now send an sd_notify() message with their exit
          status in the EXIT_STATUS= field when exiting, using the usual
          protocol, including PID 1. This is useful for VMMs and container
          managers to collect an exit status from a system as it shuts down, as
          set via "systemctl exit …". This is particularly useful in test cases
          and similar, as invocations via a VM can now nicely propagate an exit
          status to the host, similar to local processes.

        * systemd-run gained a new switch --expand-environment=no to disable
          server-side environment variable expansion in specified command
          lines. Expansion defaults to enabled for all execution types except
          --scope, where it defaults to off (and prints a warning) for backward
          compatibility reasons. --scope will be flipped to default enabled too
          in a future release, so if you are using --scope and passing a '$'
          character in the payload you should start explicitly using
          --expand-environment=yes/no according to the use case.

        * The systemd-system-update-generator has been updated to also look for
          the special flag file /etc/system-update in addition to the existing
          support for /system-update to decide whether to enter system update

        * The /dev/hugepages/ file system is now mounted with nosuid + nodev
          mount options by default.

        * systemd-fstab-generator now understands two new kernel command line
          options systemd.mount-extra= and systemd.swap-extra=, which configure
          additional mounts or swaps in a format similar to /etc/fstab. 'fsck'
          will be ran on these block devices, like it already happens for
          'root='. It also now supports the new fstab.extra and
          fstab.extra.initrd credentials that may contain additional /etc/fstab
          lines to apply at boot.

        * systemd-getty-generator now understands two new credentials
          getty.ttys.container and getty.ttys.serial. These credentials may
          contain a list of TTY devices – one per line – to instantiate
          container-getty@.service and serial-getty@.service on.

        * The getty/serial-getty/container-getty units now import the 'agetty.*'
          and 'login.*' credentials, which are consumed by the 'login' and
          'agetty' programs starting from util-linux v2.40.

        * systemd-sysupdate's sysupdate.d/ drop-ins gained a new setting
          PathRelativeTo=, which can be set to "esp", "xbootldr", "boot", in
          which case the Path= setting is taken relative to the ESP or XBOOTLDR
          partitions, rather than the system's root directory /. The relevant
          directories are automatically discovered.

        * The systemd-ac-power tool gained a new switch --low, which reports
          whether the battery charge is considered "low", similar to how the
          s2h suspend logic checks this state to decide whether to enter system
          suspend or hibernation.

        * The /etc/os-release file can now have two new optional fields
          VENDOR_NAME= and VENDOR_URL= to carry information about the vendor of
          the OS.

        * When the system hibernates, information about the device and offset
          used is now written to a non-volatile EFI variable. On next boot the
          system will attempt to resume from the location indicated in this EFI
          variable. This should make hibernation a lot more robust, while
          requiring no manual configuration of the resume location.

        * The $XDG_STATE_HOME environment variable (added in more recent
          versions of the XDG basedir specification) is now honoured to
          implement the StateDirectory= setting in user services.

        * A new component "systemd-battery-check" has been added. It may run
          during early boot (usually in the initrd), and checks the battery
          charge level of the system. In case the charge level is very low the
          user is notified (graphically via Plymouth – if available – as well
          as in text form on the console), and the system is turned off after a
          10s delay. The feature can be disabled by passing
          systemd.battery-check=0 through the kernel command line.

        * The 'passwdqc' library is now supported as an alternative to the
          'pwquality' library and it can be selected at build time.

        Contributions from: 김인수, 07416, Addison Snelling, Adrian Vovk,
        Aidan Dang, Alexander Krabler, Alfred Klomp, Anatoli Babenia,
        Andrei Stepanov, Andrew Baxter, Antonio Alvarez Feijoo,
        Arian van Putten, Arthur Shau, A S Alam,
        Asier Sarasua Garmendia, Balló György, Bastien Nocera,
        Benjamin Herrenschmidt, Benjamin Raison, Bill Peterson,
        Brad Fitzpatrick, Brett Holman, bri, Chen Qi, Chitoku,
        Christian Hesse, Christoph Anton Mitterer, Christopher Gurnee,
        Colin Walters, Cornelius Hoffmann, Cristian Rodríguez, cunshunxia,
        cvlc12, Cyril Roelandt, Daan De Meyer, Daniele Medri,
        Daniel P. Berrangé, Daniel Rusek, Dan Streetman, David Edmundson,
        David Schroeder, David Tardon, dependabot[bot],
        Dimitri John Ledkov, Dmitrii Fomchenkov, Dmitry V. Levin, dmkUK,
        Dominique Martinet, don bright, drosdeck, Edson Juliano Drosdeck,
        Egor Ignatov, EinBaum, Emanuele Giuseppe Esposito, Eric Curtin,
        Erik Sjölund, Evgeny Vereshchagin, Florian Klink, Franck Bui,
        François Rigault, Fran Diéguez, Franklin Yu, Frantisek Sumsal,
        Fuminobu TAKEYAMA, Gaël PORTAY, Gerd Hoffmann, Gertalitec,
        Gibeom Gwon, Gustavo Noronha Silva, Hannu Lounento,
        Hans de Goede, Haochen Tong, HATAYAMA Daisuke, Henrik Holst,
        Hoe Hao Cheng, Igor Tsiglyar, Ivan Vecera, James Hilliard,
        Jan Engelhardt, Jan Janssen, Jan Luebbe, Jan Macku, Janne Sirén,
        jcg, Jeidnx, Joan Bruguera, Joerg Behrmann, jonathanmetzman,
        Jordan Rome, Josef Miegl, Joshua Goins, Joyce, Joyce Brum,
        Juno Computers, Kai Lueke, Kevin P. Fleming, Kiran Vemula, Klaus,
        Klaus Zipfel, Lawrence Thorpe, Lennart Poettering, licunlong,
        Lily Foster, Luca Boccassi, Ludwig Nussel, Luna Jernberg,
        maanyagoenka, Maanya Goenka, Maksim Kliazovich, Malte Poll,
        Marko Korhonen, Masatake YAMATO, Mateusz Poliwczak, Matt Johnston,
        Miao Wang, Micah Abbott, Michael A Cassaniti, Michal Koutný,
        Michal Sekletár, Mike Yuan, mooo, Morten Linderud, msizanoen,
        Nick Rosbrook, nikstur, Olivier Gayot, Omojola Joshua,
        Paolo Velati, Paul Barker, Pavel Borecki, Petr Menšík,
        Philipp Kern, Philip Withnall, Piotr Drąg, Quintin Hill,
        Rene Hollander, Richard Phibel, Robert Meijers, Robert Scheck,
        Roger Gammans, Romain Geissler, Ronan Pigott, Russell Harmon,
        saikat0511, Samanta Navarro, Sam James, Sam Morris,
        Simon Braunschmidt, Sjoerd Simons, Sorah Fukumori,
        Stanislaw Gruszka, Stefan Roesch, Steven Luo, Steve Ramage,
        Susant Sahani, taniishkaaa, Tanishka, Temuri Doghonadze,
        Thierry Martin, Thomas Blume, Thomas Genty, Thomas Weißschuh,
        Thorsten Kukuk, Times-Z, Tobias Powalowski, tofylion,
        Topi Miettinen, Uwe Kleine-König, Velislav Ivanov,
        Vitaly Kuznetsov, Vít Zikmund, Weblate, Will Fancher,
        William Roberts, Winterhuman, Wolfgang Müller, Xeonacid,
        Xiaotian Wu, Xi Ruoyao, Yuri Chornoivan, Yu Watanabe, Yuxiang Zhu,
        Zbigniew Jędrzejewski-Szmek, zhmylove, ZjYwMj,
        Дамјан Георгиевски, наб

        — Edinburgh, 2023-07-28

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